Research Highlight #1

virus sign
Genome-wide mapping of infection-induced SINE RNAs reveals a role in selective mRNA export.
Karijolich J, Zhao Y, Alla R, Glaunsinger B.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2017 Mar 15. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx180. [Epub ahead of print]
Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons evolutionarily derived from endogenous RNA Polymerase III RNAs. Though SINE elements have undergone exaptation into gene regulatory elements, how transcribed SINE RNA impacts transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation is largely unknown. This is partly due to a lack of information regarding which of the loci have transcriptional potential. Here, we present an approach (short interspersed nuclear element sequencing, SINE-seq), which selectively profiles RNA Polymerase III-derived SINE RNA, thereby identifying transcriptionally active SINE loci. Applying SINE-seq to monitor murine B2 SINE expression during a gammaherpesvirus infection revealed transcription from 28 270 SINE loci, with ∼50% of active SINE elements residing within annotated RNA Polymerase II loci. Furthermore, B2 RNA can form intermolecular RNA-RNA interactions with complementary mRNAs, leading to nuclear retention of the targeted mRNA via a mechanism involving p54nrb. These findings illuminate a pathway for the selective regulation of mRNA export during stress via retrotransposon activation.
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Check out more of our retrotransposon research...
Infection-Induced Retrotransposon-Derived Noncoding RNAs Enhance Herpesviral Gene Expression via the NF-κB Pathway
John Karijolich, Emma Abernathy, Britt A. Glaunsinger 
PLOS Pathogens: November 19, 2015. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005260
Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are highly abundant, RNA polymerase III-transcribed noncoding retrotransposons that are silenced in somatic cells but activated during certain stresses including viral infection. How these induced SINE RNAs impact the host-pathogen interaction is unknown. Here we reveal that during murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection, rapidly induced SINE RNAs activate the antiviral NF-κB signaling pathway through both mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS)-dependent and independent mechanisms. However, SINE RNA-based signaling is hijacked by the virus to enhance viral gene expression and replication. B2 RNA expression stimulates IKKβ-dependent phosphorylation of the major viral lytic cycle transactivator protein RTA, thereby enhancing its activity and increasing progeny virion production. Collectively, these findings suggest that SINE RNAs participate in the innate pathogen response mechanism, but that herpesviruses have evolved to co-opt retrotransposon activation for viral benefit.

Read the full article in PLOS Pathogens here.

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